Viral Markers

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Viral Markers

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
DNA viruses are usually produced in the cell nuclei. Some are enveloped and have a pleomorphic shape, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Other DNA viruses are non-enveloped and have an icosahedral particle that is roughly spherical, including adenovirus (ADV), polyomavirus, human papilloma virus (HPV), and parvovirus (PARVO). Viral particles range in size from approximately 20 nm to more than 300 nm.

In some instances, replicating virus particles (inclusions) are large enough to be detected by light microscopy. Examples of DNA viruses include:

  • ADV
  • CMV
  • EBV
  • HSV
  • Varicella zoster virus (VZV)
  • Human herpes virus (HHV) 6, 7, and 8
  • HPV
  • Polyomavirus
  • Poxvirus
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
RNA viruses are most always produced in the cell cytoplasm and may be either enveloped or non-enveloped (naked). The measles virus can show in the cytoplasm. Examples of RNA viruses are:
  • Enteroviruses
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  • Influenza and parainfluenza
  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Rabies
  • Rubella
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)