Group 7—Unknown Toxins and Gastrointestinal Irritants

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The page below is a sample from the LabCE course Mushroom Poisoning and the Laboratory's Role in Monitoring Patients. Access the complete course and earn ASCLS P.A.C.E.-approved continuing education credits by subscribing online.

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Group 7—Unknown Toxins and Gastrointestinal Irritants

The chemistry of the toxins for this type of poisoning is unknown. It has been hypothesized that the toxins are related to the presence in some mushrooms of unusual sugars, amino acids, peptides, resins, or other compounds. Symptoms usually present themselves 30 minutes to 3 hours after ingestion of the mushroom and include nausea, vomiting, cramps, and diarrhea. Symptoms normally pass after the irritant has been expelled. The toxins are found in a variety of genera. A toxin found in Amanita smithiana, A. proxima, and A. pseudoporphyria is listed in this group since the toxin is an unknown compound. NAMA, however, places the toxin in a Prompt Kidney Damage group. The onset of symptoms is between 4 and 11 hours presenting with similar symptoms as seen with gastrointestinal irritants but includes kidney failure.