Trichosporon spp. are recognized as causing invasive disease in patients who are immunosuppressed in the setting of hematologic or solid organ malignancies or solid organ transplantation. Infections of the immunocompromised are usually disseminated in nature, involve major organs and many are fatal. Pulmonary involvement is the most common site of end-organ disease.
Other patients at risk for trichosporonosis include those with AIDS, extensive burns, intravascular catheters, those receiving steroids, or undergoing heart valve surgeries.
Yeast forms, arthroconidia, and hyphal elements are larger than those of Candida spp. (up to 10 microns). Trichosporon spp. hyphae are often arranged in a radial pattern.