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The page below is a sample from the LabCE course Chronic Kidney Disease. Access the complete course and earn ASCLS P.A.C.E.-approved continuing education credits by subscribing online.

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Risk Factors

Diabetes is associated with greater than 37% of all cases of CKD and is considered its leading cause (Kazancioglu, 2013). With diabetes mellitus, kidney disease develops due to the formation of hyperfiltration injuries as well as the production of reactive oxygen species and advanced glycosylation end products that damage renal tissue.
Hypertension is associated with greater than 27% of all cases of CKD and is considered the second leading cause of CKD (Kazancioglu, 2013). With hypertension, systemic pressure leads to glomerulosclerosis (hardening/scarring of the glomeruli) and loss of kidney function over time.
Other factors associated with CKD include:
  • Genetics and family history
  • Gender, ethnicity, age, birth weight
  • Socioeconomic status
  • Obesity, smoking
  • Exposure to nephrotoxins
  • Prior acute kidney injury
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