One of the best means of detecting and tracking arboviruses in the United States is through the national surveillance system, ArboNET, managed by the CDC with help from state departments of health. Arboviruses are reportable diseases and the data is maintained by ArboNET. They collect data not only from humans with disease, but from viremic blood donors, diseased birds, sentinel animals, and mosquitoes. ArboNET is dependent on clinicians collecting the proper specimens at the appropriate times and having a high level of suspicion for these diseases. Therefore, the data is often incomplete and the true incidence under reported. Neuroinvasive disease is more likely to be reported because of its potential morbidity and mortality. People with mild or asymptomatic infections may not seek healthcare. Data should be interpreted with this in mind.
Sentinel mosquito trap. Image courtesy of the CDC.