Occupationally, HIV can be contracted through blood and other potentially infectious materials (OPIM), in the same manner as HBV and HCV.
HIV is also spread in the community in the same manner as HBV and HCV:
- Via a puncture with a contaminated sharp such as a needle
- Sexual contact
- From a mother to her child before or during birth
After an occupational exposure to HIV, the chance of becoming infected is usually less than 1%. Regardless, the extremely serious nature of HIV infection should encourage health care workers to take every precaution to avoid workplace exposure.