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The page below is a sample from the LabCE course Antibody Detection and Identification. Access the complete course and earn ASCLS P.A.C.E.-approved continuing education credits by subscribing online.

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Ruling Out Example

The first step for ruling out is to choose the cells appropriate for exclusion. When using the tube method, all phases should be non-reactive to rule out. If using a gel or solid phase method, only the AHG phase is examined.
Remember, an antibody will react with cells that have the corresponding antigen; antibodies will not react with cells that do not have the antigen. This is why non-reactive cells are chosen for ruling out.
The following example is an abbreviated panel performed with a gel method. With each non-reactive cell, a rule out is performed. Below, the first non-reactive cell is examined and D, C, e, k, and s are ruled out on homozygous cells.
The second non-reactive cell is examined and c and E can be ruled out. The cell is heterozygous Ss so even though S is present on the cell, it cannot be ruled out.