HIV transmission, due to occupational exposure, occurs by:
- Percutaneous injury, such as a needlestick or a cut with a sharp object;
- Contact of mucous membrane or nonintact skin with HIV-infected blood or body fluids. Exposed skin that is nonintact includes skin that is chapped, abraded, or afflicted with dermatitis.
The risk of HIV transmission after a percutaneous exposure to HIV-infected blood is 0.3%.
The risk of HIV transmission after a mucous membrane exposure to HIV-infected blood is 0.09%.
The risk of HIV transmission after contact of abraded skin with HIV-infected blood is estimated to be less than 0.09%.