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(Online CE Course)

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Continuing Education Credits

P.A.C.E.® Contact Hours (acceptable for AMT, ASCP, and state recertification): 2.5 hour(s)
Course number 578-027-20, approved through 3/31/2022
Florida Board of Clinical Laboratory Personnel Credit Hours - General (Serology/Immunology): 2.5 hour(s)
Course number 20-696019, approved through 9/1/2020


  • Understand the autoimmune reaction and describe the various types of autoimmune diseases.
  • Describe the signs, symptoms, and causes of autoimmune diseases.
  • Describe the laboratory tests and exams used to diagnose autoimmune diseases.
  • Define the antinuclear antibody test (ANA) and explain the differences in ANA methods.
  • Distinguish positive from negative samples.
  • Identify and classify ANA patterns.
  • Discuss the clinical significance of ANAs.

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Course Outline

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  • Copyright and Disclosure
  • Overview of Autoimmune Diseases
      • Autoimmune Disease Definition and Overview
      • Autoimmune Disease Overview (continued)
      • Autoimmune Disease (continued)
      • Which of the following statements are TRUE with regard to autoimmune diseases? (Choose all that apply.)
      • A gender and genetic predisposition is usually the first step toward the development of an autoimmune reaction. The second step is the occurrence of a...
      • Common Autoimmune Diseases
      • Systemic Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases (SARDs)
      • Systemic Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases (SARDs), continued
      • Which of these is NOT considered one of the systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs)?
      • In which autoimmune disorder (and a form of SARDs) does the body's immune system mistakenly attack tissue in glands that produce moisture, such as tea...
      • Signs, Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment of Autoimmune Diseases
      • Diagnosis of Autoimmune Diseases: Laboratory Tests
      • Laboratory Tests (Continued): Other Inflammatory Biomarkers
      • The initial laboratory evaluation for autoimmune diseases often involves which tests?
  • Introduction to ANA testing
      • Antinuclear Antibody Test
      • The Antinuclear Antibody Test: Background, History, and Overview
      • Cell Morphology (The HEp-2 or HEp-2000 cell)
      • Stages of Mitosis
      • Which statement is FALSE when describing the ANA test?
      • Which two stages of cell division are the most important for reading ANAs?
  • ANA Testing Methods
      • Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA)
      • Fluorescent ANA Testing
      • Colorzyme®
      • Which of the following statements is FALSE when describing indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs)?
      • Which statement accurately describes the Colorzyme® system?
      • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)
      • True or False: Depending on the laboratory and specific method used, an ANA titer is typically considered negative when the titer is equal to or less ...
      • Other Methods for ANA Testing
      • Conditions Associated with a Positive ANA Test
      • About 95% of those individuals with a particular condition have a positive ANA test. Therefore, the most common condition associated with a positive A...
  • ANA Pattern Interpretation
      • Reading ANA Patterns Using a HEp-2 or HEp-2000® Substrate
      • For the ANA test to be positive, what must be present in the nucleus of the interphase cell?
      • ANA Testing Scheme
      • Why are ANA positive samples titered? (Select all that apply.)
      • Follow-up Testing
      • Antigen Chart
  • ANA Patterns
    • Unusual or Atypical Speckled Patterns
    • Mixed ANA Pattterns
      • Mixed ANA Patterns: Overview
      • Homogeneous and Speckled
      • Homogeneous and Centromere
      • Homogeneous and SSA/Ro (on HEp-2000®)
      • Speckled and SSA/Ro Pattern
      • Scl-70 Pattern
      • Other Mixed Patterns
      • What is the most common combination of ANA patterns?
    • Cytoplasmic Patterns
      • Cytoplasmic ANA Patterns: Overview
      • Common Cytoplasmic Staining Patterns
      • Common Cytoplasmic Staining Patterns (continued)
      • Cytoplasmic patterns are interesting to look at but have no clinical significance and should NOT be reported.
  • References
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