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- Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) -- Definition, Etiology, and Epidemiology
- Definition, Etiology, and Epidemiology
- Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) are caused by viral infections.
- Cytotoxic agents, chemical, or radiation therapy may be etiologic factors of Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS).
- Clinical and Diagnostic Features of MDS
- Clinical Features of Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)
- Diagnostic Features of MDS
- Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) are associated with microcytic/hypochromic anemia.
- The three myeloid cell lines in the bone marrow are: granulocytic, erythroid, and megakaryocytic.
- Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) commonly have enlarged liver and spleen.
- Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) are commonly associated with leukocytosis and neutrophilia in peripheral blood evaluations.
- Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) demonstrate very low levels of vitamin B12.
- The Morphological Features of MDS
- The Morphological Features of Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)
- Dysplastic Erythroid Cell Line (Dyserythropoiesis)
- Examples of Dysplastic Erythroid Cells (Dyserythropoiesis), continued
- Dysplastic Granulocytic Cell Line (Dysgranulopoiesis)
- Dysplastic Megakaryocytic Cell Line (Dysmegakaryopoiesis)
- The dysplasia of the erythroid cell line may include nuclear budding, megaloblastoid, and ring sideroblasts in cases of MDS.
- Normal megakaryocytes show multinucleation or monolobes.
- Granulocytic dysplasia in MDS may include nuclear hyposegmentaion and/or cytoplasmic hypogranulation.
- The Classification of MDS
- The Classification of Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)
- The Classification of Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS), continued
- The Significance of Auer Rods in MDS:
- Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) with single line dysplasia show <5% bone marrow blasts.
- Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) with multilineage dysplasia show 10-19 % blasts in the bone marrow.
- The Prognostic Criteria of MDS
- Prognostic Criteria of Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)
- Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) with bone marrow blasts counts of 5-9% carries a low risk grade.
- Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) with bone marrow blast counts between 10-19% are considered to be high risk grade.
- The Differential Diagnosis of MDS
- Differential Diagnosis of MDS
- Vitamin B12 or folate deficiencies may cause megaloblastic changes in the bone marrow and blood cytopenia.
- Chemotherapeutic drugs cause bone marrow hyperplasia and leukocytosis.
- MDS Therapy
Level of instruction: Intermediate
Intended audience: Medical laboratory professionals, clinical laboratory science students, and instructors of hematology.
Author Information: George Girgis, MLS (ASCP)CM has over 30 years of experience as a Medical Laboratory Scientist during which he has been a trainer and instructor at Indiana University Health in the field of hematology and hematopathology. George holds a Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery from Ein-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt and a Bachelor of Science in Medical Laboratory Sciences from I.U.P.U.I., Indianapolis, IN.
Reviewer Information: Margaret Reinhart MS, MT(ASCP) is the MLS Program Director and Senior lecturer in Biological Sciences at the University of the Sciences in Philadelphia PA where she teaches hematology, clinical immunology, parasitology and other related courses. She is also adjunct instructor in Hematology at Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia PA. She holds a Masters Degree in Biology and in Health Care Administration.
Reviewer Information: Leah Coppolino, MPH, MLS(ASCP)CM is a Program Director at MediaLab, Inc. Previously, she was the Director of the Medical Laboratory Science Program at St. Christopher’s Hospital for Children in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She holds a Masters in Public Health from Thomas Jefferson University.